Animal traction for agricultural development
West Africa Animal Traction Network
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         Animal traction for agricultural development
edited by 
                                    Paul Starkey
and Adama Faye 

     475 pages and 400 illustrations including 175 photos
Published 1988. ISBN 92-9081-046-7

The West Africa Animal Traction Network aims to foster the use of animal power for agricultural development and actively encourages the exchange of information and cooperation among its members in West Africa and elsewhere. One means to facilitate such liaison is through technical workshops, and this book derives from the third international workshop of the West Africa Animal Traction Network. Specialists in animal traction from 24 countries met to learn from each other's experiences in the field of animal traction research, development, extension and training. The first part of this book summarises workshop activities and conclusions, and both English and French versions of these reports can be downloaded here.  

All participants prepared written contributions in which technical, social and economic aspects of animal traction were presented and analysed, and a total of 60 edited papers are presented in the second half of this book, and all of these can now be downloaded from this website. Half the papers were written in English and half were written in French, and all have abstracts in both languages, and this will assist the exchange of information between anglophone and francophone specialists.

The papers are wide-ranging, dealing with research on animal traction, the development of animal-drawn implements and animal-powered equipment, the economics of animal traction, constraints to animal traction development, the impact of animal traction within the farming systems of different countries, gender issues and various strategies for animal traction development. This book, containing contributions from 82 authors from 24 countries provides a weath of ideas and experiences concerning animal traction, and will be valuable to all those interested in this important field of agricultural development.

The book is co-published by the Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural  Cooperation (CTA), Wageningen, The Netherlands

All the papers in this book, as well as the workshop reports, are now available in PDF format  to read on-line, download and/or print out. Most papers have file sizes between 150 kb and 500 kb. Depending on the speed of your connection, these files will take between one and four minutes to download. Papers with photographs generally have larger files and these are marked in yellow (over one megabyte) or red (over two megabytes) and these will take longer to download. 

(Click on the title to download any of the reports or papers)


Part 1: Report of the workshop

Summary of workshop activities 
        P Starkey and A Faye   18
Compte-rendu des s顮ces et activit鳠de l'atelier
         P Starkey and A Faye   30  
Networking announcement    46
Petites announces du R鳥au   52
List of workshop participants: Liste des participants   59
Workshop evaluation  
        P H Starkey and M P Starkey   64
Evaluation de ľ atelier   
        P H Starkey et M P Starkey   74 
Statues of the West Africa Animal Traction Network   80
Les Statues du R鳥au Ouest African sur la Traction Animale   83
Part 2: Papers prepared for the workshop

Keynote paper and overviews: animal traction in West Africa and elsewhere

Animal traction for agricultural development in West Africa: production, impact, profitability and constraints (2MB)
        P Starkey   90
Les project de d鶥loppment de la traction animale: constraints li饳 ࠠľ animal et voies ď intervention prioritaires
        P Lhoste   115
Effects dynamiques de la traction animale dans les syst譥s de production
        D Bordet   124
Overcoming constraints to animal traction through a collaborative research network
        M R Goe   136
La gestion de la carri貥 des bovins de traits
        P Lhoste   144   
The impact of animal traction on women
        M R Nelson-Fyle and R Sandhu   153
Using sxuence to understand the biological constraints that limit work animal productivity
        A J Smith   156

Profitability of animal traction: studies in Morocco, Guinea, Togo, Benin, Senegal and Ghana

Rentabilité de la traction nimale dans les petites exploitations marocaines
        B Elhimdy et J Chiche   162
La rentabilité du labout attelé dans la sous-préfecture de Bangouya, Guinée
        E Huybens   168
Etude comparative de rentabilité de la culture manuelle et de la culture  attelé au Togo 
        K N Amegbeto   174
Impact socio-économique de la traction animale das la province de ľ Atacora, Bénin
        S J Kokoye   186
Rôle de mécanisation dans ľ intensification de ľ agriculture en Basse Casamance, Sénégal 
        F Ndlame, D Coulibaly et A Fall   192   
Profitability assessment of animal traction investment: the case of northeastern Ghana
        A Panin   201

Developing equipment for animal traction: Burkina Faso, Senegal, Mali, Zambia, Brazil, India

Etude de deux outils attel鳺 r餵ction des constraintes de travail du sol en zone s襨e
        G Le Thiec et D Bordet   210
Le travail ࠬa dent sur sol gravillonnaire au S鮩gal
        M Sene et P Garin   218
Local production of animal-drawn implements
        K B Van Dam   224
The need for standardized producers to test ox-drawn implement: experience from Zambia
        R A Meijer and K Chelemu   226
Animal power production and mechanism for linking animals to machines
        T Thomas   230
Le semis direct sous mulch dans les petites exploitations du Sud-br鳴ilien
        H Schmitz   237  
Workload constraints: the measurement and interpretations of mechanical factors
        D C Kemp   242

Animal traction in Senegal: impact, constraint and experiences

Application ď une m鴨ode simple de suivi et ď evaluation de la culture attel饠au Bassin Arachidier, S鮩gal
        M Havard   248
R쥠des forgerons traditionnels dans la maintenance du mat鲩el de traction animale en Basse Casamance, S鮩gal
        A Fall et F Ndlame   256 
Adoption et principales constraintes ࠬa diffusion des 鱵ipments de traction animale en Basse Casamance, S鮩gal 
        A Fall   267
Ĺ impact du cr餩t sur la traction animale: analysis critique du Cr餩t Sp飩al du Project PIDAC en Basse Casamance, S鮩gal
        F Ndlame   284
Disponibilit頤es animaux de trait et constraites structurelles en Basse Casamance 
        M L Sonko   294

Animal traction in the Gambia: impact, constraint and experiences

A note on animal traction research and development activities in the Gambia
        P A Cham   306
Post-cultivation constraints to increasing productivity using animal traction in the Gambia
        D Sarr   308
Socio-economic constraints to the use of animal traction for rainfed rice production in the Gambia
        A Jhoes   310
Foaling and mortality of equines in the Gambia: a national survey
        J Sowe, B Gai, J Sumberg and E Gilbert   315

Animal traction in Sierra Leone: impact, constraint and experiences

Constraints to the extension of draft animal technology in the farming system of Sierra Leone
        A B Bangura   324
Overcoming some animal health constraints to work oxen in Sierra Leone through a revolving fund
        W Mckinlay   328
Ĺ approvisionnement en animaux de trait: contrainte ࠼/a>ľ extension de la traction animale en Sierra Leone
        D Barrfaud  332
Village level engineering: the importnance of the blacksmith in supporting animal traction and agricultural production
        A H Kanu   334
Social constraints to the adoption and expansion of work in Sierra Leone
        M S Bah   337

Animal traction in Togo: impact, constraint and experiences

La culture attelte頡u Togo: donn饳 statistiques
        I Sabi   344
Les constraintes de la culture attelte頯bserv饳 par la Soci鴩 Togolaise de Coton 
        L T Lawson   348
Usure des pi裥s travvaillantes des 鱩pments de culture  attelte頠at Togo
        K Apetofia et L A Dogbe   350
Impact de la traction animale en C䥠ď Ivoire
        O Zana   359

Animal traction in Nigeria: impact, constraint and experiences

Animal traction in Nigeria: impact, constraints, and current initiatives
        S Bako and S Ingawa   366  
Animal traction technology in northern Nigeria: a survey of constraints and a model of prospects
        D O A Phillip, G O I Abalu, A A Aganga and A O Aduku   370
Animal power for agricultural production in Nigeria
        E S Gwani   376
A note on the draft animals used in northern Nigeria
        A L Katsina   381 
Observations on animal power utilization in the farming systems of northern Nigeria
        J O Gefu, H U Ahmed, E O Otchere and S A S Olorunju   382

Animal traction in Mali: impact, constraint and experiences

Impact de la culture attelte頤ans la zone ľ Op鲡tion Haute Vall饠du Niger, Mali
        C Sidibe   388
La traction animale dans la zone ľ Op鲡tion Haute Vall饬 Mali: utilisation ct constraintes 
        B Kone   393
Pr鳥ntation du project Centre ď Animation Rurale Mixte (CARM), Mali
        B Traore   396
Ĺ impact de la traction animale: cas des pr鴳 "Premier Equipement" das la r駩on Mali-Sud
        M I Sangare et A Traore   399

Animal traction in Niger: impact, constraint and experiences

Constraintes ࠦ#318; utilisation de la traction animale au Niger
        M Tchougoune   408  
The development of animal traction equipment adopted to the rainfed areas
        J E Ashburner and Y Mamane   413
The potential impact if the use of animal traction on millet-based cropping systems in the Sahel
        M C Klaji and P G Serafini   422
Animal traction in Cameroon and Zaﲥ: impact, constraint and experiences
The impact of animal traction for production in a permanent farming system in North-West Cameroon: the role of the PAFSAT Project
        N M Wilfred   432 
Exp鲩ences en Traction bovine du Project Rural Dioc鳡in, Zaﲥ
        D S Kabeya   435

Animal traction in Zambia, Kenya and Tanzania: impact, constraint and experiences

Historical and present constraints to the use of animal traction in Zambia
        H J Dibbits and M Sindazi   444  
A note on the impact of animal traction in Zambia
        K Chiteta   450
The impact of the oxenization programme in the North-Western Province of Zambia
        D L Soko   452
Reducing present constraints to the use of animal power in Kenya
        S O Onyango   455 
Constraints to the adoption of animal traction weeding technology in the Mbeya Region in Tanzania
        L Loewen-Rudgers, E Rempel, J Harder and K K Harder   460
Abbreviation and acronyms: Abreviations et sigles   
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