Research for development of animal traction in West Africa 
West Africa Animal Traction Network
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Research for development of animal traction in West Africa
edited by 
      P R Lawrence, K Lawrence, J  T Dijkman and P H Starkey  

Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop of the
West Africa Animal Traction Network
Kano, Nigeria, 9-13 July 1990
Published 1990 by 
The International Livestock Centre for Africa ( ILCA), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
306 pages, ISBN 92-9053-276-9

See below how to download the workshop report and the papers

This publication derives from the fourth international workshop of the West Africa Animal Traction Network (WAATN). WAATN is an open, informal and active network which, since its inception in 1985, has facilitated interaction between professionals working in a wide range of different jobs and disciplines. WAATN has always been broadly-based. Participants at this and previous WAATN workshops have been specialists in agricultural engineering, animal nutrition, animal health, management, agronomy, soil science, agroforestry, economics, sociology, anthropology, extension and several other relevant fields.

The overall theme of the workshop was a broad one: "Research for Development of Animal Traction in West Africa". This theme was chosen by the Network Steering Committee which considered that it would provide a framework in which to further develop the integrated, farming systems approach to animal traction which has characterised deliberations at past workshops. The themes of the previous workshops were: 
"Animal traction in a farming systems perspective" (held in Togo in 1985),
"Animal power in farming systems" (held in Sierra Leone in 1986) and 
"Animal traction for agricultural development" (held in Senegal in 1988). 
In former workshops much mention had been made of the need for more research or more relevant research on animal traction issues. The Steering Committee considered that a workshop orientated towards research issues could directly and beneficially influence the quality, relevance and effectiveness of research on animal power, thereby indirectly having a positive impact on African agriculture. 

The papers in this volume can all be downloaded from this website and provide analyses of the experiences, needs and methods in a range of animal traction research areas including:
*   Social and economic aspects
*   Nutrition of working animals
*   Animal health
*   Management systems
*   Implements and equipment
*   Diversified uses
*   Technology transfer
*   Research methodology

The workshop report and all the papers in this book are now available in PDF format  to read on-line, download and/or print out. Most papers have file sizes between 150 kb and 500 kb. Depending on the speed of your connection, these files will take between one and four minutes to download. Papers with photographs generally have larger files and these are marked in yellow (over one megabyte) or red (over two megabytes) and these will take longer to download. 

(Click on title to download the workshop report and the papers)

Preface and Acknowledgements

Section 1: Introductory

Section 2: Animal health
Research for the control of draught animal disease in West Africa: needs, experiences and methods
        S Ravindran, R C Massaquoi and S Wiles 13
Considérations sur le Suivi Sanitaire des Animaux de ĺ Ouest
        K Apétolia et S Ravindran   20
Rapport sur le Suivi Sanitaire  des Animaux de Trait au Togo
        K K Akob   26
La santé des animaux de trait
        J S Dossou   30
The importance of Traditional Veterinary Medicine (TVM) in animal health programmes
        M S Bah   33 

Section 3: Diversified uses of animal traction

Research on diversified uses of work animals: needs, experiences and methods (1,2MB)
        T Thomas, C Oram and G Tembo   39
Development of an animal-powered rice-huller
       K Dippon   49
Constraints to the diversifications of the use of animal-drawn implements in the Gambia
        D M Sarr   56
Expérimentations Récentes sur la Mécanisation de la Culture du Mil à Cinzana
        S Traoré, D Sogodogo et S V R Shetty   60
Mécanisation Agricole dans la Commune de Kasséré: 
un Exemple de Diversification de ĺ Utilisation de la Traction Animale en Côte ď Ivore 
        Z Outtara   64
Weed control systems in maize based on animal drawn cultivators
        R M Shetto and E M Kwiligwa   71
Le Rôle de la Traction Animale dans le Processus de Mécanisation de la Rizixulture en Basse Casamance (Bilan et Perspectives)
        A Fall   79

Section 4: Harnessing and implementation

Les Equipment de Culture Altelée: Bilan et Perspectives pour ĺ An 2,000
        G Le Thiec   87
Machines de Récolte à Traction Animale pour Agriculteurs Raisonables
        J Nolle   96
Research on the mechanization of weeding with animal-drawn implements
        J Betker   99
Use of animal-drawn implements & equipment by small scale farmers in Bauchi State, Nigeria
       I Jalo and A D Kwatra   104  
Soil tillage research development : quantifying tillage effects, ad important training module
        B Jacobl   108
Appropriate animal drawn equipment for Sierra Leone
        J V Bangura   113
The potential and development in animal transport devices
       J S Adeoti   116   
Effects of introducing animal-drawn implements and equipment within Sahelian farming system in Niger
       F Kruit   120

Section 5: Management

The management and husbandry o male and female draught animals: research achievement and needs (1,2MB)
        R W Matthewman, J T Dijkman and E Zerbini   125
Management of work oxen in Sierra Leone and its implications for research 
        B H Kanu and F A-R Sankoh   137
Camels and donkeys as pack and transport animals in semi-arid Northern Nigeria: herd composition, management and utilisation
        W A, Hassan and B A Ibitoye   140
An extension delivery system for animal traction technology in developing countries
        J Abubakar and M A Gwarzo   145
Test de conditionnement des Boeufs de Labour en zone OHV du Mali
        B Kone et J Caldwell   148
Effort de Suive et ď Entretion des Bovins de Trait dans le Département de ĺ Atanora, Bénin
        S J Kokoye   151
La Stabulation Fumére comme Facteur de Développement de la Traction Animale en Zone Cotonnière du Sénégal
        C S Seye   157
Section 6: Nutrition
Research on the nutrition of working animals: needs, experiences and methods (1,2MB)
        J C Mathers and E O Otchere   163
Recherches aux possibilités de conditionnement des boeufs de labour à base de paille de brousse enrichie 
à l'urée et evaluation de son inpact sur leur capacité de travail         
       by  T Khibe et PW Bartholomew  
La paille de riz dans l'alimentation des boeufs de labour à l'Office du Niger
       by  T A Tamboura   180
Section 7: Research methodology
Experimental methods in draught animal research
        P R Lawrence and R A Pearson   187
Research on the draught animal power systems in Ethiopia
        A Astatke   199
Researchers zux Effects de Poids Vif et Embonpoint des Boeufs de Labour sur la Capacité de Travail
        P W Bartholomew et T Khibe   205
Section 8: Socio-economic aspects
Socio-economic issues in animal traction research and development in Nigeria
        D O A Phillip and O A Ogunblle   211
Economic analysis of cow traction farm technology in the Ethiopian highlands 1
        A Panin and R E Brokken   221
The social and economic aspects of anima traction in agricultural production among female headed households if Lesotho and Swaziland
        J K Rwelamira   227
Les Implications Socio-économiques de la Traction Animale dans la Zone du Project du Développement Rural de Notsé
        M K A Gbofu   231  
Les Aspects Economiques et Sociaux de la Traction Animale 
        N N Kodom   233 

Section 9: Technology transfer

Le Transfert de Technologie: Quelques Enseignements Basés sur ĺ Experience Mali-Sud
        P Kleene   239   
Appropriate animal traction technology for rural women in Nigeria
        I O Oguejiofo   244
Promoting the adoption of animal traction technology in Nigeria: some relevant issues
        A Omotayo and P P Idisi   248
Expérience de Transfert de Technologie dans les Sysémes de Production Rizicole du Delta et de la Vallée du Fleuve Sénégal 
        Y Ba   253  
Proposition de Technologie en Milieu Réel: 
Cas du Conditionnement des Bovins de Trait en Saison Sèche au Compement de Dogoma (région ouest du Burkina Faso)  
        O Badini   257

Section 10: Regional and miscellaneous 

Research on cow traction in Africa: some lessons to be learnt
        M A Jabbar   263
Research and development of draught animal power utilisation in West Africa
        H L Musa and S T Bello   269
The extent of draught cow use in the North bank division of the Gambia
        J M Sowe and J D Reed   273   
Prospects of animal traction in Southern Nigeria. and empirical study
        A Daramola   276
Status of animal traction development in Ghana
        E Y H Bobobee   279
La Culture Attelée au Tehad 
        A I Abakar   282 
Section 11: Workshop synthesis
Workshop synthesis and recommendations for future research   287   
Synthèse de ĺ  Atelier et recommandations   291
Section 12: Poster abstracts  
The oxylog for oxen
        P R Lawrence and J T Dijkman   297
A comparison of local and jersey crossbred draught oxen in the hills of East Nepal
        R A Pearson, R F Archibald and I Campbell   298

Section 13: Participants
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